Ensemble studies have contributed tremendously to comprehending biological reactions. However, these studies characterize the average molecular population, and have limited ability in detecting intermediate states or distinguishing heterogeneities. Over the past few decades, single-molecule techniques, including fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), magnetic tweezers (MT) and optical tweezers (OT), have proven to be exceedingly powerful in addressing this knowledge gap. By studying one molecule at a time, these approaches have enabled significant advancement in the understanding of a wide variety of biomolecular systems, especially those involving DNA and associated proteins. Using these single‐molecule techniques, our research interests focus on understanding mechanisms and functions of molecular motors in the process of DNA replication, repair, recombination, and editingsuch as helicase, polymerase and nuclease, and developing technological innovations to meet the challenges in the pursuits. In addition, we are working on understanding structures and functions of membraneless organelles and RNA-binding proteins. Our lab currently covers four major research fields:


  • text Many biology reactions are too complex to fully comprehend through the use of conventional ensemble techniques. Studying one biological macromolecule at a time, or biology in singulo, can provide us with extraordinarily clear and often surprising views of these molecules in action. In the last 20 years, single molecule techniques, including magnetic tweezers and optical tweezers, have enabled sign...